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 ORIGIN AND THE PRODUCTION OF PAINTS

Primitive Painting

Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a solid surface (support base).
Paint is a substance that is applied as a liquid or paste, and dries into a solid coating that protects or adds color/colour to an object or surface to which it has been applied. It is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied.

HISTORY

It was first discovered over 25years ago and can still be found in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paintings tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found.

Cave Painting

Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap. Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paints for limited decoration, such as painting walls. Oils were used as varnishes, and pigments such as yellow and red ochre, chalk, arsenic sulfide yellow, and malachite green were mixed with binders such as gum Arabic, lime, egg albumen, and beeswax. Paint was first used as a protective coating by the Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships. During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, but due to the scarcity of paint, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs. Around the same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible (mixable) paints, and artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, thereby hastening evaporation. They also adopted a new solvent, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly used solvent until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century. In Boston around 1700, Thomas Child built the earliest American paint mill, a granite trough within which a 1.6 foot (.5 meter) granite ball rolled, grinding the pigment.

TYPES OF PAINT

-Emulsion, Text coat and Satin (nylon paint)

HOW TO PRODUCE EMULSION PAINT

These are items and chemicals used in emulsion paint production;
1. Water
2. Titherni (used only for the production of white paint)
3. Calcium carbonate (Calcium)
4. Colourite
5. P.V.A
6. Formalin
7. Nitrosol
8. Ammonia
9. Hydrosol
10. Marble dust
11. Acrydext
Others include
12. Geniple
13. K14
14. Bama cork

Functions of the items and chemicals

1. Water: Water is used to mix all the chemicals together. It must not be a hot water. You can use any type of clean and neat water with normal water temperature. However, I prefer soft water to cold water. It helps to mix the paints more easily.
2. Titherni: It is whitening chemical in powdery form. You can always get it where they are selling paint chemical, or rather industrial chemical. Just ask of titherni it will be given to you. It performs the function of making sure that you with paint is shining and not dull. This is the secret of some big names in painting industry. We shall give you the ratio down the line. It is only used when you are producing with paint. That does not mean you cannot use it in other colours but the function is more significant in white paints.
3. Calcium Carbonate: This chemical is also in powdery form. It is packaged in bags and they write CalCo on it. It is made by so many companies, I would not like to advertise any but just ask of calcium and it will be given to you.
Now calcium carbonate is of two or types
We have delomite and cacite. Both are good but delomite is recommended if you are producing pure white paint and cacite is better in off white (dirty white) paint.
4. Colourite: This is the most important of the entire course. It involves the ability of mixing some colours to get a desired result. It is not difficult at all if you have initiative and artistic eye.
These are the colours we have in raw form ( please permit me to call them primary colours because all other colours in the painting industry is gotten from them)
They are: yellow ( we painters call it cream), Red, Black, Blue, and Green. All other colours are gotten from a combination of one or two of these.
What about White paint? You might ask. Well we do not need to have a pure white colour because, we make our paints with CalCo and it gives us white naturally. In fact once you put your calcium in water you get white paint. I hope that is clear.
We shall cover how to mix the paints to get particular result. But for now just know that colours can be found in paste or oxide. When we say colours are in paste we mean that they are in condensed liquid form (like your pomade), when they are in oxide it means they are in dust form (like your wife’s powder). A colour like cream has both oxide and paste. Red and black are mostly in oxide, green and Blue are in paste. For those who might be wondering which one to use between the yellow oxide and yellow paste, I suggest that if you want the colour you are producing to be deep yellow like MTN colour, you should use paste, otherwise use oxide.
CAUTION: you MUST dilute the colours very well with a little water before you apply it to your paint. For example if you get a red oxide, pour a cup of water in a different container mix thoroughly. If not, your paint will be having dotted stains as you roll it on the wall.
5. P.V.A.: This chemical is very important. I guess you might have seen a situation where after painting a building, when you rub your hand on the surface it will be dusting. That is as a result of ill usage of this liquid formed chemical. In my experience, some big names in the painting industry do not even know how to use it. But you not worry, I will tell you and who know you might become their next consultant.
6. Formalin: It does the function of preservative.
7. Nitrosol: It helps to hold the paints together i.e it is a thickener. Its correct usage makes the paint more durable on the wall.
8. Ammonia: This is your secondary school laughing gas. It is also used to make the paints more durable. It serves as a preservative agent too.
9. Hydrosol: This is the chemical that integrates the colours and brings out the best in them. It is used to correct dullness in paints.
10.Marble dust: This is usually used in the production of textcoat paints. It is of two types rough and smooth. The preference is determined by what you want to achieve. If you want sandy textcoat i.e the one without lining, you use only rough type. However, the combination of both in the same ratio gives a better result.
11. Acrytext: This is used as a thickener. It holds the seemingly watery paint together.
12. Geniple: This one just does the function of giving the painter a scintillating perfume as he does his job.
12. K14: It is also a preservative.
13. Bama cork: It does the function of nitrosol. If you use bama cork you do not need to use nitrosol.

Steps On How To Produce Emulsion Paint

Step 1:  Mix Calcuim Carbonate in water
For one bucket production (hence we shall be referring to bucket of paint i.e. normal — litres of paint as drum), pour water in the bucket up to half (– liters of water) you can always increase the volume of water at any stage if necessary. Add less than half bag of Calcuim (add until the mixture rises to about 17 liters in the bucket) by now the drum will be quarter empty. NOTE: if you are producing white paint, you will mix titherni in water before adding calcium. — Spoons of titherni are enough. MIX VERY WELL.

Step 2: Add your colour. It is assumed that by now you must have diluted the colours as required with water if they are oxide. Now put colour in small rations and keep turning until you get your desired result. You can always add more if you like. Suppose you added more yellow for example, than you need, you can correct it by adding more calcium (but not after this stage) Bear in mind that the colour may be deeper when wet and lighter when the paint is dried.

Step 3:  Add –kg of P.V.A to the mixture. After turning add half glass cup of nitrosol. Nitrosol is always in powdery form so you must dilute it in small water before you add to your mixture.
Next add about — centiliter of formalin and about same volume for ammonia and hydrosol sequentially. Turn very well at any addition of a new chemical.

Step 4:  When you have completed the above steps, make sure that you turn the above mixture very well. As you are turning it you might be a little fidgeted that you have wasted your resources. You don’t need to be afraid. Just add acrytext to the mixture and turn. Add it in small quantity until you get the thickness you desire. However if you add access you might spoil your mixture. Now that you paint is ready, just take your scraper, brush and roller and roll away your newly built house.
Warning: please the chemicals must be added in the order I have given you. If not you may have problem for example if you put ammonia before Nitrosol, the paint will get blocked. And again if ammonia drops in Nitrosol, the Nitrosol will block. More so, when formalin is poured into ammonia it will explode. The only time you can add ammonia before Nitrosol is when you are turning on machine speed. Just be careful.

Steps On How To Produce Textcoat Paint

Step 1: Pour about — liters of water into the bucket, add — bag of Calcuim (or less) then add your colours as it is supposed to be.

Step 2: now after turning the mixture above, you add marble dust ( I hope you remember what we said about marble dust above). Good. You will notice that some text coat paints have a kind of lining and some has only rough surface. And there are those that we call designer text coat such are the once that they use with the aid of a special roller to design houses so that its end effect will be something like flowers or blocks made of paint in your house. Am sure you must have seen such paint. It is called artwork in the painting industry. All these are text coat but it is the mode of application of this chemical that makes different types.
For rough text coats use only rough marble dust in your production
For lining text coats use a combination of rough and smooth marble dust in equal ratio( if you are producing this one I will advise you add smooth marble dust first after turning add the rough one)
For artwork text coats use only smooth marble dust in production.
Now as you are adding the marble dust, you will notice that the volume of your mixture is increasing. Just add according to your own discretion it has no specific measurement. If you are confused on the quantity to add, just keep adding until the drum is — empty. Use your initiative. Please do not use only smooth marble dust for production unless you are producing artwork that needs a designer roller.

Step 3: when you are through with turning of this mixture (turn very well), you will now add your P.V.A. and other chemicals like we said in emulsion. However you will need to increase their volume a little. For example you will need full glass cup of Nitrosol and increase the volume of other chemicals a little. When you have finished adding the other entire chemicals up to Hydrosol, you turn the paint as you add Acrytext. On the addition of acritext the paint will become strong. Now to know if the Acrytext you added is enough, take a small portion of the paint and touch it on the wall. If the teething is not falling congratulations if it is falling add more.

Steps On How To Produce Satin (nylon paint)

I hope you remember we did mention Satin paint some where. This is the type of paint that is generally regarded as nylon paint. It is called nylon paint because it is washable ( u can use water to wash it when it is dirty.

Step 1:  For one drum Use About — litres of water. Add calcium in a small quantity to make the paint light. What I mean is that the thickness of the paint at this stage will be less than the thickness it has when we are producing emulsion.

Step 2:  Now add your favourite colour.
You do NOT use P.V.A.
Add — kg of Acritext
— kg of Nitrosol (just enough to make the paint thicker and drawing)
Add ammonia and formalin as usual and finally add — kg of hydrosol
Your washable paint is ready

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